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Surface Properties & Enhancements

Surfaces of a drug product container/delivery systems are often modified to enhance performance by: (a) reducing interaction with drug product, (b) retarding migration of leachables into drug product, and (c) facilitating delivery (e.g., easier plunger movement). Typically modification is a fluoropolymer (West FluoroTec® branded products) or polysiloxane (B2-Coating technology) coating. This section presents papers on surface modification technology and resultant effects.

Introduction to Fluoropolymers. 

S. Ebnesajjad (FluoroConsultants Group, LLC)


This article reviews the structures, syntheses, and chemical/physical properties of many different types of fluoropolymers, e.g. tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and ethelyene tetradloroethylene (ETFE).

Link: http://www.fluoroconsultants.com/sitebuildercontent/sitebuilderfiles/introductiontofluoropolymers.pdf

Introduction to Silicone Chemistry. 

A. Colas


This article discusses briefly the different types of silicone polymers, and how they are synthesized.

Link: http://www.dowcorning.com/content/publishedlit/Chapter1_silicone-chemistry-introduction.pdf

Silicones in Medical Applications. 

X. Thomas


This article discusses in detail the chemical/physical properties (e.g., very low surface energy) of silicone polymers, and why these properties enable utility in pharmaceutical applications.

Link: http://www.dowcorning.com/content/publishedlit/Chapter17.pdf

Silicones in Coatings. 

T. Easton


This article discusses in general the reasons that the properties of silicone polymers make them suitable for coatings applications.

Link: http://www.dowcorning.com/content/publishedlit/Chapter7.pdf

Surface Tension of Polymers. 

A. Agrawal


Utility of fluoropolymers and siloxane polymers in the pharmaceutical industry is based in large part on low surface tensions.  This presentation reviews the fundamental science of surface tension.

Link: http://web.mit.edu/nnf/education/wettability/summerreading-2005short.pdf





FluroTec® is a registered trademark of West Pharmaceutical Services, Inc. in the United States and of an affiliated company in other jurisdictions.

B2-coating technology is licensed from Daikyo Seiko, Ltd.