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1. USP [2016]. USP General Chapter <800> Hazardous Drugs—Handling in Healthcare Setting. Rockville, MD: United States Pharmacopoeia, accessed USP [2016].

2. Michael R. Page, Closed-System Transfer Devices: Design Characteristics and Evolving Performance Standards, 19May2016;; accessed 11Jan2021

3.NIOSH [2004]. NIOSH Alert: Preventing Occupational Exposures to Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in Health Care Settings. Cincinnati, OH: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2004-165., accessed 06Jan2021

4.NIOSH [2015]. A Vapor Containment Performance Protocol for Closed System Transfer Devices Used During Pharmacy Compounding and Administration of Hazardous Drugs., accessed 12Jan2021

5.FDA Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience (MAUDE) Database,, accessed 12Oct2020

6.Cathy Zhao and Allison Radwick; 5 Challenges of Closed System Transfer Devices Parental Drug Association letter, Manufacturing Science 07Jan, 2020

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Aaron Chapman

Aaron Chapman PhD

Program Manager, Commercial Technology Development

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